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Table 1 Effects of vitamin E, L-arginine, melatonin, or HCG on corpus luteum resistance index and serum progesterone concentrations in patients with luteal phase defect.

From: Luteal blood flow and luteal function

    CL-RI   Serum P (ng/ml)   
  n previous cycle treatment cycle No. of < 0.51 previous cycle Treatment cycle No. of ≥ 10 ng/ml
Control 11 0.544 (0.515–0.643) 0.552 (0.483–0.633) 1 (9%) 7.2 (4.5–9.7) 8.2 (6.1–16.7) 2 (18%)
Vitamin E 18 0.550 (0.514–0.632) 0.448a (0.376–0.681) 15 (83%)c 8.0 (5.8–9.2) 11.6a (6.4–21.6) 12 (67%)d
L-arginine 14 0.538 (0.513–0.676) 0.419a (0.348–0.483) 14 (100%)c 7.6 (2.4–9.4) 12.8a (6.5–22.8) 10 (71%)d
Melatonin 13 0.538 (0.515–0.676) 0.530 (0.431–0.691) 4 (31%) 7.7 (2.4–8.9) 9.5b (2.9–29.1) 5 (38%)
HCG 10 0.545 (0.518–0.931) 0.447a (0.406–0.506) 10 (100%)c 8.1 (5.9–9.2) 14.7a (8.8–18.4) 9 (90%)c
  1. Sixty-six patients with both luteal phase defect and high corpus luteum-resistance index (CL-RI ≥ 0.51) were recruited in this study. Vitamin E (600 mg/day, n = 18), L-arginine (6 g/day, n = 14), or melatonin (3 mg/day, n = 13) was given after ovulation throughout the luteal phase. Controls received no medication (n = 11). Ten patients received luteal support with HCG (2,000 IU/day, on days 3 and 5 after ovulation). Data were compared between the treatment cycle and the previous cycle in each treatment, and between the control group and each treatment group. One patient out of 11 (9%) spontaneously improved in CL-RI and 2 patients (18%) did in serum progesterone (P) in the control group. By vitamin E treatment, 15 patients out of 18 (83%) showed improved CL-RI, 12 patients (67%) developed a serum P of more than 10 ng/ml. L-arginine treatment improved CL-RI in all the patients (100%) and serum P in 10 patients out of 14 (71%). Melatonin treatment had no significant effect on CL-RI. HCG treatment improved CL-RI in all the patients (100%) and serum P in 9 patients out of 10 (90%). Values show median with ranges. a; p < 0.01 and b; p < 0.05 v.s. previous cycle (Wilcoxon test). c; p < 0.01 and d; p < 0.05 v.s. control (x2-test with Bonferroni correction).