ALK3QD signalling induces EMT marker expression and reduces β
-integrin expression. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed on total RNA isolated from 429T-ALK3QD cells, and 429T control cells, treated with Dox for 2 d, or left untreated. Human gene-specific primers were used to detect mRNA expression of the EMT markers Snail (SNAI1), Slug (SNAI2), and E-cadherin (CDH1). Quantification of expression of beta- integrins [β1 (ITGB1), and β3 (ITGB3)], and the extracellular matrix components, fibronectin (FN1) and vitronectin (VTN) was also performed. Induction of ID1 and ID3 mRNA expression by ALK3QD served as a positive control. GAPDH mRNA expression was used for normalization, and the fold change in mRNA expression was calculated by the ratio of Dox-treated versus untreated cell samples.