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Table 2 Summary of the studies on lymphatic mapping of the ovaries

From: Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in ovarian tumors: a study using intra-operative Tc-99m-Phytate and lymphoscintigraphy imaging

First author/year Included patients Mapping material Injection site Main results
Kleppe/2014 21 patients diagnosed with a pelvic mass suggestive of a malignant ovarian tumor Blue dye/Radiotracer On the dorsal and ventral side of the proper ovarian ligament and the suspensory ligament, close to the ovary and just underneath the peritoneum Al least one sentinel node could be identified in all patients (100 % detection rate). Para-aortic region only in 67 %, pelvic region only in 9 %, and in both in 24 %. No false negative case
Negishi/2004 11 women with endometrial or fallopian tube tumors Activated Charcoal Into the unilateral cortex of the ovary Sentinel node could be identified in all patients: para-aortic in all patients, common iliac node in three, and external iliac in one
Nyberg/2011 16 patients with high-risk uterine cancer and normal postmenopausal ovaries Blue dye/Radiotracer Slow injection near the hilum of one ovary Sentinel node could be identified in 15 patients (93.75 % detection rate). All were located in the para-aortic area.
Vanneaville/1991 14 patient who were investigated by laparoscopy, either for ablation of a benign ovarian cyst or for tubal ligation Radiotracer Injection into the mesovarium of the normal ovaries during laparoscopy. Lymphatic drainage could be discerned in 12 patients. Isolated para-aortic sentinel nodes in 4, combined pelvic/para-aortic sentinel nodes in 8.
Lymphatic drainage was investigated by lymphoscintigraphy 4–6 h post-injection. Isolated para-aortic drainage was more prominent in the post-menopausal (75 %) as compared to the pre-menopausal patients (12.5 %).
The current study 35 patients with ovarian tumors Radiotracer Sub-cortical in 11 and sub-peritoneal (ovarian and suspensory ligaments) in 24 Detection rate of 40 % in the sub-cortical and 84 % in the sub-peritoneal group. Sentinel nodes were identified in 21 patient in the para-aortic area only and in 4 in the pelvic/para-aortic area. No false negative case was identified