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Table 2 Clinico-pathological criteria for differentiation of pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia of tubes from adenocarcinoma

From: Pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia of the fallopian tube mimicking tubal cancer: a radiological and pathological diagnostic challenge

Pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia Adenocarcinoma
1. Most patients are usually younger. 1. Most patients are postmenopausal, with a mean age of 62 years
2. It is always reactive and secondary. Usually associated with underlying chronic inflammation or hyperestrogenic states 2. It is always primary.
3. It shows no gross evidence of tumor, but there is inflamed, grossly dilated or thickened tube. 3. Most carcinomas are grossly evident.
4. Chronic inflammation is marked. 4. Chronic inflammation is not prominent.
5. Solid epithelial proliferation is not observed. 5. Solid epithelial proliferation is variably evident.
6. Mild to moderate nuclear atypia is observed 6. Nuclear atypia is prominent.
7. There are few mitotic figures. It has been considered an important criterion. 7. There are numerous mitotic figures.
8. Invasion of the tubal wall is not evident, but pseudoinvasion of the muscularis by gland like structures or lymphatic penetration by epithelial cells can be observed. 8. True invasion of the tubal wall is evident.