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Table 4 Comparison of mean differences of fertility, residuals of ovarian cancer (OC56) standardised on fertility and GDP PPP respectively between WHO regions

From: Low fertility may be a significant determinant of ovarian cancer worldwide: an ecological analysis of cross- sectional data from 182 countries

OC56 incidence rate Residual of OC56 standardised on fertility Residual of OC56 standardised on GDP
I n Mean J Mean difference (I-J) I n Mean J Mean difference (I-J) I n Mean J Mean difference (I-J)
AF n = 46 Mean = 4.19 AM −1.70* AF n = 45 Mean = − 0.29 AM − 0.16 AF n = 44 Mean = − 0.15 AM −0.03
EM −0.99 EM −0.29 EM 1.03
EU −4.50*** EU −0.30 EU −2.15***
SEA −1.71 SEA −0.67 SEA −1.02
WP −2.44** WP −0.81 WP −0.98
AM, n = 31 Mean = 5.89 AF 1.69* AM n = 31 Mean = −0.13 AF 0.16 AM n = 29 Mean = −0.12 AF 0.03
EM 0.70 EM −0.13 EM 1.06
EU −2.81*** EU −0.15 EU −2.12**
SEA −0.01 SEA −0.52 SEA −0.99
WP −0.74 WP −0.65 WP −0.95
EM n = 22 Mean = 5.19 AF 0.99 EM n = 21 Mean = 0.001 AF 0.29 EM n = 18 Mean = −1.18 AF −1.03
AM −0.70 AM 0.13 AM −1.06
EU −3.51*** EU −0.01 EU −3.18***
SEA −0.71 SEA −0.38 SEA −2.05
WP −1.45 WP −0.52 WP −2.01
EU n = 50 Mean = 8.70 AF 4.50*** EU n = 49 Mean = 0.14 AF 0.30 EU n = 50 Mean = 2.00 AF 2.15***
AM 2.81*** AM 0.15 AM 2.12**
EM 3.51*** EM 0.01 EM 3.18***
SEA 2.80* SEA −0.37 SEA 1.13
WP 2.06* WP −0.50 WP 1.17
SEA n = 11 Mean = 5.90 AF 1.71 SEA n = 11 Mean = 0.38 AF 0.67 SEA n = 10 Mean = 0.87 AF 1.02
AM 0.01 AM 0.52 AM 0.99
EM 0.71 EM 0.38 EM 2.05
EU −2.80* EU 0.37 EU −1.13
WP −0.73 WP −0.13 WP 0.04
WP n = 22 Mean = 6.63 AF 2.44** WP n = 21 Mean = −0.01 AF 0.81 WP n = 19 Mean = 0.83 AF 0.98
AM 0.74 AM 0.65 AM 0.95
EM 1.45 EM 0.52 EM 2.01
EU −2.06* EU 0.50 EU −1.17
SEA 0.73 SEA 0.13 SEA −0.04
  1. The mean difference comparison results conducted with One-way ANOVA Post hoc Bonferroni are reported. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  2. Ovarian cancer (OC56) incidence rate is from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Fertility indexed by birth rate, GDP PPP and urbanization are from the World Bank. Ageing expressed as life expectancy (e65) is from the United Nations. Obesity prevalence is from the World Health Organization
  3. Biological State Index (Ibs) was downloaded from previous publications, which were calculated with the data of the world fertility form the UN Population Council and the WHO life tables