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Table 2 Mental health and metabolic profiles at baseline and after the 12-week intervention in women with polycystic ovary syndrome that received either probiotic plus selenium supplements or placeboa

From: The effects of probiotic and selenium co-supplementation on parameters of mental health, hormonal profiles, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

Variables Placebo group (n = 30) Probiotic plus selenium group (n = 30) Difference in outcome measures between probiotic plus selenium and placebo groupsa
Baseline Week 12 Baseline Week 12 β (95% CI) Pb
BDI total scores 15.6 ± 4.4 15.3 ± 4.7 15.5 ± 4.0 14.4 ± 3.7 −0.76 (−1.26, − 0.26) 0.003
GHQ scores 45.4 ± 8.1 44.6 ± 8.2 44.2 ± 7.3 42.4 ± 6.7 −1.15 (− 1.97, −0.32) 0.007
DASS scores 86.3 ± 13.1 85.1 ± 12.9 85.1 ± 11.2 82.5 ± 10.9 −1.49 (−2.59, −0.39) 0.009
Total testosterone (ng/mL) 1.3 ± 0.5 1.3 ± 0.4 1.4 ± 0.7 1.1 ± 0.6 −0.26 (− 0.51, − 0.02) 0.03
SHBG (nmol/L) 40.3 ± 17.5 40.4 ± 18.3 47.1 ± 19.7 49.5 ± 22.1 1.82 (−1.77, 5.42) 0.31
mF-G scores 13.0 ± 3.7 13.0 ± 3.6 14.5 ± 3.2 14.0 ± 2.9 −0.43 (−0.74, − 0.11) 0.008
hs-CRP (mg/L) 2.5 ± 1.6 2.7 ± 1.5 2.4 ± 1.5 2.0 ± 1.5 −0.58 (− 0.97, − 0.19) 0.004
NO (μmol/L) 36.5 ± 3.8 36.8 ± 4.0 36.6 ± 2.3 37.8 ± 3.5 0.94 (−0.65, 2.54) 0.24
TAC (mmol/L) 909.9 ± 110.8 909.4 ± 122.7 933.3 ± 59.8 1012.9 ± 69.4 84.76 (48.08, 121.44) < 0.001
GSH (μmol/L) 496.4 ± 88.1 497.8 ± 88.3 528.3 ± 88.3 552.9 ± 83.1 26.78 (4.33, 49.23) 0.02
MDA (μmol/L) 2.4 ± 0.5 2.6 ± 0.7 2.8 ± 0.2 2.5 ± 0.2 −0.29 (−0.56, −0.02) 0.03
  1. Data are mean ± SDs
  2. a“Outcome measures” refers to the change in values of measures of interest between baseline and week 12. β [difference in the mean outcomes measures between treatment groups (probiotic plus selenium group = 1 and placebo group = 0)]
  3. bObtained from multiple regression model (adjusted for baseline values of each biochemical variables, age and baseline BMI)
  4. BDI beck depression inventory, DASS depression anxiety and stress scale, GHQ general health questionnaire, GSH total glutathione, hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, mF-G modified Ferriman Gallwey, MDA malondialdehyde, NO nitric oxide, SHBG sex hormone-binding globulin, TAC total antioxidant capacity