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Table 1 Characteristics of cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) in ovarian cancer (OC)

From: Cancer-testis antigens in ovarian cancer: implication for biomarkers and therapeutic targets

CT genes Location Expression in OC Positive ratio in tissues Clinical significances in OC Molecular biological functions involved in OC References
AKAP3 12p13.32 OC tissues mRNA 58% (43/74), 28% (15/54) OS, PFS, Grade, Stage Cell migration, Invasion [28, 42, 69]
  SVOV3, SKOV3, OV432  
AKAP4 Xp11.22 OC tissues mRNA & protein 89% (34/38) NR ROS generation, DNA damage, Cell cycle, Apoptosis, EMT [29, 70]
  A10, Caov-3, SKOV3  
BAGE 21p11.2 OC tissues mRNA 14.6% (6/41) Metastasis, Diagnostic sensitivity in ascites NR [24, 37]
  OC ascites specimens mRNA 63% (17/27)  
  COC1  
BORIS 20q13.31 OC tissues NR OS, PFS, Stage, global DNA hypomethylation Immortalization (Activates hTERT transcription) Coregulation with other CT genes [49, 51, 58, 94]
  OVCAR3, A2780, OVCAR429  
CT45 Xq26.3 OC tissues mRNA 25% (29/118) OS, DFS, Stage Coregulation with other CT genes [27, 31]
  OVSAHO Protein 37% (82/219)  
GAGE-1/2 Xp11.23 OC tissues mRNA 26.8% (11/41) Diagnostic sensitivity in ascites Paclitaxel-resistant phenotype [24, 34, 37, 78]
  OC ascites specimens mRNA 30% (8/27)  
  A2780 Protein 13.9% (30/216)  
HOM-TES-85 Xq23 OC tissues mRNA 32% (7/22) NR Transcriptional activity and splicing [95]
HORMAD1 1q21.3 Cell linesa NR NR Cell survival, Invasion, Migration, Tumor microenvironment (VEGF, NF-κB) [76, 77]
HSP70-2 6p21.33 SKOV3, Caov-3, A-10 NR NR Cell cycle, Apoptosis, EMT [67]
LAGE-1 Xq28 OC tissues mRNA 21% (22/107) Stage NR [25]
  SKOV3  
MAGE-A1 Xq28 OC tissues mRNA 53.7% (22/41), 21% (12/58), 40.3% (25/62) PFS, Tumor differentiation, Stage, Metastasis, Diagnostic sensitivity in ascites Cell proliferation, Migration (NOTCH signaling), Coregulation with other MAGE genes. [19, 21, 24, 37, 78, 96]
  mRNA or protein 15% (42/281)  
  OC ascites specimens mRNA 7% (2/27)  
Cell linesb   
MAGE-A2 Xq28 OC tissues mRNA 9% (5/58) Chemotherapy Cell growth, Paclitaxel-resistant phenotype, Coregulation with other MAGE genes. [19, 78]
MAGE-A3 Xq28 OC tissues mRNA 36.6% (15/41), 40.3% (25/62) Tumor differentiation, Stage, Cell growth, Coregulation with other MAGE genes, [19, 21, 23, 33, 37, 78]
  mRNA or protein 36% (131/390) Diagnostic sensitivity in ascites or plasma Paclitaxel-resistant phenotype
  OC ascites specimens mRNA 30% (8/27)  
  A2780, COC1, OV-90  
MAGE-A4 Xq28 OC tissues mRNA 7% (4/58), 64.5% (40/62) OS Coregulation with other MAGE genes [19, 21, 22, 33, 34]
  Protein 23% (49/216)  
  mRNA or protein 47% (186/399)  
  Serum Protein 22% (13/60)  
MAGE-A9 Xq28 OC tissues Protein 37% (47/128) OS, Stage, Grade, CA-125, Metastasis NR [39]
MAGE-A10 Xq28 OC tissues mRNA 11.3% (7/62) PFS Coregulation with other MAGE genes [21, 33]
  mRNA or protein 52% (204/395)  
MAGE-C1 Xq27.2 OC tissues mRNA 14.5% (9/62) PFS, Grade, Chemotherapy Coregulation with other MAGE genes [21, 33, 34]
  mRNA or protein 16% (42/267)  
  Protein 25% (52/212)  
NY-ESO-1 Xq28 OC tissues mRNA 25.9% (260/1002) OS, PFS, Stage, Grade Coregulation with other CT genes ( LAGE-1 ) [14, 25, 33, 34]
  mRNA 30% ( 32/107) 8.1% (5/62)  
  Protein 43% (62/143), 7.1 % (15/211), 26.5% (232/874)  
  SKOV3, A2780, OVCAR3 mRNA or protein 41% (408/1002), 43% (82/190)  
OY-TES-1 12p13.31 OC tissues mRNA 32.3% (20/62) Survival time, faster relapse Spindle-pole congression, Cell proliferation, Paclitaxel resistance [33, 35, 83, 97]
  mRNA or protein 69% (69/100)  
  PEO4, PEO1 Protein 81% (87/107)  
PRAME 22q11.22 OC tissues mRNA 60% (70/119) OS, DFS, Grade, Stage, Metastasis, NR [60, 98]
  Cell linesc   Global DNA hypomethylation  
PASD1 Xq28 OC tissues NR NR NR [99]
PIWIL1 12q24.33 OC tissues mRNA 61% (129/211) OS, Metastasis, Chemotherapy, Interacts with let-7a, Invasiveness, Angiogenesis [43, 100,101,102]
  A2780 Protein 18/20 (90%)  
PIWIL2 8p21.3 OC tissues mRNA 29% (18/62) Metastasis Cisplatin resistance (repair of cisplatin-induced DNA damage) [33, 43, 82]
  Cell linesd Protein 19/20 (95%)  
PIWIL3 22q11.23 OC tissues Protein 19/20 (95%) Metastasis   [43]
PIWIL4 11q21 OC tissues Protein 19/20 (95%) Metastasis   [43, 102]
  OVCAR5  
PLU-1 1q32.1 OC tissues Protein 71% (85/120) OS, DFS, Stage, Grade, Metastasis, Chemotherapy NR [80]
PLAC1 Xq26.3 OC tissues, mRNA 21% (21/101) NR NR [61, 103, 104]
  Cell lines e  
SPAG9 17q21.33 OC tissues mRNA 90% (18/20) NR Cell proliferation, Invasion, Migration (JLP-JNK signaling) [30]
  Cell linesf Protein 67% (20/30)  
SCP-1 1p13.2 OC tissues mRNA 15% (15/100) Grade, survival NR [105]
SP17 11q24.2 OC tissues mRNA 68% (17/25) Chemotherapy Cell migration, Chemosensitivity (carboplatin, cisplatin). [32, 91, 106]
  Protein 43% (30/70)   Vaccination against SP17 controlled tumor growth in a murine model  
  Metastatic ascitic fluid  
  HO-8910, ES-2, SKOV-3  
SSX2 Xp11.22 OC tissues, mRNA 10% (12/122) Potential diagnostic markers for ovarian cancer (anti-SSX common epitope, sera) NR [26, 107]
  SVOV3, OVCAR3,   
SSX1 Xp11.22 OC tissues mRNA 2.5% (/3/118)  
  SKOV3  
SSX4 Xp11.22 OC tissues, mRNA 16% (19/120)  
  SVOV3, SKOV3, OVCAR3 mRNA 50% (6/12)  
TAG-1 5p15.2 OC tissues mRNA 35% (8/23) NR NR [108]
   Cell linesg   
TAG-2a 5p15.2 OC tissues mRNA 22% (5/23)  
   Cell linesh   
TAG-2b 5p15.2 OC tissues mRNA 9% (2/23)  
   OVCAR3, TTB-6   
TAG-2c 5p15.2 OC tissues mRNA 9% (2/23)  
  OVCAR3, SW626, TTB-6  
TRAG-3 Xq28 OC tissues Protein 83.8% (31/37) OS, PFS, Chemotherapy Coregulation with other cancer-testis antigens. [36, 81]
  SKOV-3TR, OVCAR-4  
  1. OC, Ovarian cancer; OS, Overall survival; PFS, Progression-free survival; EMT, Epithelial-mesenchymal transition; ROS, Reactive oxygen species; DFS, Disease-free survival
  2. NR, Not reported. aA2780, 2774, SKOV3, ES-2. b SKOV3, A2780, COC1, SKOV3ip. cOVCAR3, SKOV3, CAOV-3, OVSAHO, A2780, SNU119, IOSE121
  3. dOVCAR5, CDDP, 2008C13, A2780, CP70, MCP2, MCP3, MCP8, 2008. e CAOV4, SKOV3, CaoV3, BG1
  4. fA-10, SKOV-6, CAOV-2, Cov362, OVCAR4, Cov318, CAOV-3, OV90, ES-2, TYKNU
  5. gCAOV-3, CAOV-4, ES-2, OV-90, OVCAR3, SKOV3, SW626, SW626, TOV-21G, TTB-6. hCAOV-3, COV413, OV-90, OVCAR3, SW626, TTB-6
  6. Bold font indicates the positivity rate in bodily fluids rather than in tissues