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Table 1 Prenatally galactose-induced animal models for POI

From: Induced premature ovarian insufficiency by using D galactose and its effects on reproductive profiles in small laboratory animals: a systematic review

Author, year (Refs.) Strain & treatment Gestational day of treatment group(s) & (age of sampling) Results
Ovarian morphological histology Hormonal profile Estrus cycle, vaginal opening Body weight Metabolic disturbances
Chen et al., 1981 [22] SD, Feeding by 50% galactose, Grp 1 or prenatal Grp: 3rd to birth (at birth)
Grp 2 or pre & postnatal Grp: 3rd to weaning (after weaning)
Grp 3 or postnatal Grp: birth to weaning (after weaning)
Grp 4 or post weaning Grp: 1–2 month (at 2 months)
S-Grp 1:1st-9th (9th)
S-Grp 2: 15th -20th
S-Grp 3: entire gestational period
S-Grp 4: 1st to weaning
(Adv): pre and postnatal study
Grp1: there were no survivor
Grp2:SF↓ (about 80%)
Grp3:NSD in SF
Grp4: MF & LF↓
S-grp3: SF↓, MF
S-Grp 4: SF↓, MF NSD, LF NSD (about 50%)
NR (Lim) S-Grp 1: DVO (+)
S-Grp 2: DVO(−)
S-Grp 3: NR
S-Grp 4: NR
Grp 1:↓
Grp2: ↓↓
Grp4:less dramatic BW changes (+)
Grp1:GAL (+)
Grp1:Gal-1-p (+)
Grp3: GAL less than Grp 1
Grp3: Gal-1-p less than Grp 1
Control group: GAL & Gal-1-p undetectable
Bandyopadhyay et al., 2003 [23] SD, Feeding by 35% galactose Grp1: feeding GAL from 3rd through parturition (12–15 days of gestation from one uterine horn)
Grp 2: feeding GAL from 3rd through parturition (PND 1 or 2)
Grp1: PGC↓ NR (Lim) NR NR Grp 2: Liver epimerase activity ↓
Bandyopadhyay et al., 2003 [14] SD, Grp1:, Feeding by 35% galactose
Grp2: Feeding by 35% galactose and followed ovarian stimulating by PMSG-HCG between PND25/30,
Grp3: Feeding by 35% galactose and followed desensitized by GnRH and induction after 10 days by PMSG-HCG
Feeding GAL from 3rd day of conception through weaning (PND21, 25/30, 42/43, 70/71) AF absence
CL absence
E2, PND 21↓
E2, PND 42/43↓
FSH, PND 21↑
FSH,PND 42/43↑
Delay VO(+) Low BW, PND21: (+)
GR, PND30/40: ↓
GAL: (PND21)↑
Gal-1-p: (PND21)↑
GAL: (PND70/71)↑
Gal-1-p: (PND70/71) ↑
Banerjee et al. 2012 [24] SD, Grp 1: Feeding by 35% galactose, (PND 35)
Grp 2: Feeding by 35% galactose, received subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of DES (2 mg/rat/day) for 4 days, or PMSG (25 mIU/rat/day) for 2 days. (PND 39–40)
Feeding from 3rd day of gestation and continuing through weaning of the litters. Grp 1:ATF↑, bio activity GC: NC Grp 1: FSH bioactivity↓ NR (Lim) NR Grp 1: GalTase ↓
  1. PND Postnatal day, Grp Group, S-Grp Sub group, (Adv) Advantage, (Lim) Limitation, FSH Follicle stimulating hormone, LH Luteinizing hormone, E2 Estradiol, s.c. Sub cutaneous, PGC Primordial germ cells, PriF Primary follicle, PreAF Preantral follicle, AF Antral follicle, CL Corpus luteum, ATF Atretic follicle, GC Granulosa cells, NC No change (no significant difference with controls), (−) = no observed, (+) = observed, ↑ = significant increase, ↓ = significant decrease, NSD No significant differences, NSI No significant increase, SD Sprague Dawley, wks weeks, NR Not reported, BW Body weight, GR Growth rate, GAL Galactose, Gal-1-p Galactose 1-phosphat, Gat Galactitol, AlRd Aldose reductase, EC Estrus cycle, DVO Vaginal opening, SF Small follicles (smallest oocyte surrounded by no more than a single layer of follicular cells), MF Medium follicles(growing oocytes surrounded by more than one layer of follicular cells and had no antrum), LF Large follicles (more mature antral follicles), LEA (Liver epimerase activity), GalTase = galactosyltransferase