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Table 1 Different beta-glucans, their characteristics, sources, and potential uses

From: Functional activities of beta-glucans in the prevention or treatment of cervical cancer

Name of beta-glucanTypeSourceCharacteristic (s)Potential application (s)References
CelluloseBeta-1,3-glucanPlant and bacterium (Acetobacter species)Insoluble in water, straight-chain, high mechanical strength,Wound-dressing[24,25,26,27,28]
CurdlanBeta-1,4-glucanBacterium (Agrobacterium species)Water-insoluble, linear, high molecular weight, affecting innate and adaptive immunities, easy modificationImmunological functions and drug delivery[29,30,31,32,33]
LaminarinBeta-1,3 and beta-1,6-glucanBrown algaeLow molecular weight, linear, low viscosity, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activitiesDevelopment of a new injectable system[34,35,36,37]
ChrysolaminarianBeta-1,3-glucanMicroalgaeLinear, antioxidant and immunomodulatory capacity suitable for immunostimulationDevelopment of a new injectable[38, 39]
LentinanBeta-1,3 and beta-1,6-glucanFungus (Shiitake)Affecting T helpers and macrophage, non-toxic and well-tolerated immunomodulator, initiating an inflammatory responseAnti-tumor effects with low side effects[40,41,42,43]
LicheninBeta-1,3 and beta-1,4-glucanLichens (Cetraria islandica)Linear, non-toxic, stimulating effects on T cellsBeing used as an Anti-tumor agent[44,45,46]
PleuranBeta-1,3 and beta-1,6-glucanFungus (Pleurotus ostreatus)Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activityTreatment of dermatitis, being used as an anti-cancer and anti-allergic agent[47,48,49,50,51]
ZymosanBeta-1,3-glucanYeastAnti-inflammatory effects, affecting dendritic and T cells, affecting cytokine expressionBeing used as treatment for several diseases such as cancer, peritonitis and etc.[52,53,54,55]
SchizophyllanBeta-1,3 and beta-1,6-glucanFungus (Athelia rolfsii)Stimulate the immune system, carry metals in waterAid in delivering drugs and genes, and use in some nanofibers[56,57,58,59]