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Table 1 Summary of the papers included in the analysis evaluating the relationship between zygote morphology and biological and clinical outcomes

From: Pronuclear morphology evaluation for fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles: a systematic review

Authors Design Age (yrs) Zygotes (n.) ART procedure TOPI Zygote score Outcome measures
EQ CS BS IR PR D/LBR ECS
Scott et al. 2000 [10] P <43 3,701 IVF/ICSI NA Modified from Scott and Smith, 1998 Yes NA Yes Yes Yes NA NA
Wittemer et al. 2000 [11] P NA 1,000 IVF/ICSI 18h Modified from Tesarik and Greco, 1999 Yes NA NA NA Yes NA NA
Tesarik et al. 2000 [12] R NA 350 ICSI 14–17h Tesarik and Greco, 1999 Not Not NA Yes Yes NA NA
Ludwig et al. 2000 [13] P NA 405 IVF/ICSI 16–18h Scott and Smith, 1998 Yes NA NA NA Yes NA NA
Balaban et al. 2001 [14] R NA 86 ICSI 14–17h Tesarik and Greco, 1999 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes NA NA
Salumets et al. 2001 [15] P NA 2,284 IVF/ICSI 16–18h Scott and Smith, 1998/Tesarik and Greco, 1999 Not Yes* NA Not Not NA NA
Montag et al. 2001 [16] P NA 1,114 IVF/ICSI 16–20h Modified from Tesaik and Greco, 1999 NA NA NA Yes Yes NA NA
De Placido et al. 2002 [17] R NA 1,171 ICSI 16–20h Combination of Sadowy, 1998, Scott and Smith, 1998, Tesarik and Greco, 1999, Scott, 2000, and Wittemer, 2000 Not Not NA Not Not NA NA
Zollner et al. 2002 [18] P 33.4±4.1 1,119 IVF/ICSI 16–18h Number, juxtaposition and size of PN, number and alignment of NPBs NA Yes Yes°° NA NA NA NA
Gianaroli et al. 2003 [19] P ≥36 631 IVF/ICSI 16h Gianaroli, 2003 Yes Yes NA Yes Yes NA Yes
Chen et al. 2003 [20] P   368 IVF 18–21h Modified from Scott, 2000 Not NA NA NA NA NA Yes
Nagy et al. 2003 [21] P/R 25–40 912 ICSI 12–21h§ Size of PN, number and polarization of NPBs Yes° (only in day 3) Yes° (only in day 2) NA Yes# Yes# NA NA
Scott et al. 2003 [22] R <43 3,882 IVF/ICSI 16–18h Scott, 2000 NA Yes Yes NA NA NA NA
Lan et al. 2003 [23] R NA 1,894 IVF/ICSI 16–18h Scott, 2000 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes NA NA
Gámiz et al. 2003 [24] P NA 888 ICSI 16–18h Size of PN, number, distribuiton and synchrony of NPBs NA Yes*** NA NA NA NA Yes***
Jaroudi et al. 2004 [25] P NA 131 IVF/ICSI 15–18h Tesarik, 2000 Not NA NA NA Not NA NA
Kattera et al. 2004 [26] P 35.4±3.6 (IVF) 35.1±3.4 (ICSI) 2,714 IVF/ICSI 18–20h PN orientation Yes Yes NA Not Not NA NA
Balaban 2004 [27] R NA 309 IVF/ICSI 17h Modified from Tesarik and Greco, 1999 Yes Yes Yes NA NA NA Yes
Payne et al. 2005 [28] P ≤42 552 IVF/ICSI 16–18h Scott, 2000 Not Not NA Not Not NA NA
Edirisinghe et al. 2005 [29] P ≥37 952 IVF/ICSI 16–18h Scott, 2000 Yes Yes NA NA NA NA Yes
James et al. 2006 [30] R NA 3,333 IVF/ICSI 16–18h Combination of Sadowy, 1998 and Scott, 2000 Not NA NA Not Not Not NA
Sjöblom et al. 2006 [31] R NA 1,961 IVF/ICSI 16–18h PBs, NPBs and PN NA NA Yes NA NA NA NA
Chen et al. 2006 [32] P 35.7±3.7 (IVF) 35.5±3.4 (ICSI) 1,186 IVF/ICSI 18–20h PN, PBs and NPBs NA Yes NA Not Not NA NA
Gianaroli et al. 2007 [33] R 38.2±3.7 (IVF) 39.0±3.5 (ICSI) 2,535 ICSI 16h Gianaroli, 2003 Yes NA NA Yes NA NA Yes
Arroyo et al. 2007 [34] P 33.1±2.93 (IVF) <39 (ICSI) 569 IVF/ICSI 14–23h Tesarik and Greco, 1999 / Scott, 2000 Yes NA NA Not Not NA NA
Guerif et al. 2007 [35] P NA 4,042 IVF/ICSI 18–20h Modified from Tesarik and Greco, 1999 NA NA Not NA NA NA NA
Scott et al. 2007 [36] P <38 2,528 IVF/ICSI 17–18h Scott, 2000 NA NA NA Yes Yes Yes NA
Depa–Martynow et al. 2007 [37] P NA 787 IVF 16–18h Scott, 2000 Yes NA NA NA NA NA NA
Nicoli et al. 2007 [38] R 23–41 1,032 IVF/ICSI 18–20h Modified from Scott, 2000 and Gianaroli, 2003 Not NA NA Not Not NA NA
Álvarez et al. 2008 [39] R 35.0±3.5 883 IVF/ICSI 16–18h Tesarik and Greco, 1999 Yes NA NA Yes Yes NA NA
Liu et al. 2008 [40] P 30.4±3.71 (IVF) 30.1±3.79 (ICSI) 2,836 IVF/ICSI 16–20h Scott, 2000 Yes Yes NA Yes Not NA NA
Qian et al. 2008 [41] P NA 973 IVF/ICSI 18–18h Scott, 2000/Lan, 2003 Not NA NA NA NA NA NA
Brezinova et al. 2009 [42] R <39 1,954 IVF/ICSI 16–20h Modified from Tesarik and Greco, 1999 NA NA NA Not Not NA NA
Maille et al. 2009 [43] P 40.1±1.3 (IVF) 27.1±1.4 (ICSI) 301 ICSI 16–18h Gianaroli, 2003 Not Yes ** NA Yes Yes ** NA NA
Zamora et al. 2010 [44] P NA 2,105 IVF/ICSI 16–18h PN size, NPBs and PBs NA Yesç NA NA NA NA NA
Weitzman et al. 2010 [45] P <36 852 IVF/ICSI 18–20h Tesarik and Greco/Scott, 2000 NA NA NA Not NA NA NA
Nicoli et al. 2010 [46] R 35.9±4.0 1,078 IVF/ICSI 18–20h Gianaroli, 2003 Not Not NA NA Not Not NA
Bar–Yoseph et al. 2011 [47] R 31.1±5.0 1,516 IVF/ICSI 17–18h Scott, 2000 NA NA NA Not NA NA NA
Aydin et al. 2011 [48] P 29.8±3.5 487 ICSI 16–18h Modifed from Tesarik and Greco, 1999/Scott, 2000 NA Not NA NA NA NA NA
Nicoli et al. 2013 [49] R 36.6±3.9 755 IVF/ICSI 18–20h Gianaroli, 2003 NA NA NA NA Not Not NA
  1. P: prospective; R: retrospective; IVF: in vitro fertilization; ICSI: intracytoplasmic spem injection; PN: pronuclei; PBs: polar bodies; NPBs: nucleolar precursor bodies; TOPI: time of observation post–insemination; Yes: statistically significant correlation; Not: No correlation or correlation not statistically significant; NA: not available.
  2. *: only for zygotes classified according to Scott and Smith, 1998; °°: only in ICSI cycles; °: only for polarization, and not for number of NPBs §: first observation 12–14 h post–ICSI, second observation 16–18 h post ICSI (retrospective) and third observation ≥ 20 h post ICSI (prospective); #: only in combination with embryo morphology evaluation; ***: only in patients < 37 years old; **: only in patients < 30 years old; ç: only for NPBs.