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Table 1 Overview of cancer cell culture techniques, adapted from [11,12,13]

From: Organoids of epithelial ovarian cancer as an emerging preclinical in vitro tool: a review

TechniqueAdvantagesDisadvantages
Traditional cell culture (monolayer and spheroids)- Easily maintained and expanded- Cancer cells lose grow potential in vitro
- Genetic manipulation- Often only one clone expands
- High-throughput drug screening- Lower biological stability
- Most favorable cost-benefit- Inability to represent the clinical cancer spectrum
Xenografts- In vivo culture- Difficult genetic manipulation
- High heterogeneity possible- Graft failure
- Complete microenvironment- Time and resource consuming
- Lack of high-throughput drug screening
Organoids- Long term expansion- Unknown capability to capturing whole spectrum of in vivo heterogeneity
- Mimicking in vivo conditions- Time consuming initiating a model
- High-throughput drug screening- No microenvironment
- Tissue subtype modeling