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Table 2 Comorbidities and their association with ovarian cancer risk

From: Comorbidities and inflammation associated with ovarian cancer and its influence on SARS-CoV-2 infection

Factors Comorbidities Association with ovarian cancer Mechanism of pathogenesis explained by References
Demographic Age Increased risk, Poor outcome Gonadotropin theory, Inflammation theory [25]
Reproductive Ovulation Increased risk Incessant ovulation theory, Inflammation theory [160]
Pregnancy Protective Gonadotropin theory [155]
Pre-eclampsia Pregnancy Increased risk Inflammation theory [20]
Lactation Protective Gonadotropin theory [132]
Gynaecologic Pelvic inflammatory disease Increased risk Inflammation theory [104]
Endometriosis Increased risk Retrograde menstruation theory, Inflammation theory [133]
Tubal ligation Protective Inflammation theory [123]
Hormonal Oral Contraceptive Pills (OCPs) Protective Gonadotropin theory [42]
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) Controversial Gonadotropin theory [35]
Genetic Family history Increased risk   [88]
BRCA mutation Increased risk   [179]
Lynch syndrome Increased risk   [108]
Lifestyle Food Controversial Inflammation theory [146, 121]
Adiposity/Obesity Increased risk Inflammation theory, Gonadotropin theory [144]
Smoking/ Caffeine Controversial Inflammation theory [94, 119]
Environmental Talc Increased risk Inflammation theory [196]