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Table 2 Mental health parameters and metabolic profiles at baseline and after the 12-week intervention in women with polycystic ovary syndrome that received either vitamin D plus probiotic supplements or placebo

From: Vitamin D and probiotic co-supplementation affects mental health, hormonal, inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

Variables Placebo group (n = 30) Vitamin D plus probiotic group (n = 30) Difference in outcome measures between vitamin D plus probiotic and placebo groups1
Baseline Week 12 Baseline Week 12 β (95% CI) P2
25-hydroxyvitamin D (ng/mL) 12.9 ± 3.2 13.3 ± 2.7 11.1 ± 4.1 24.4 ± 5.6 12.69 (11.09, 14.29) < 0.001
BDI total scores 13.8 ± 3.6 13.2 ± 3.7 12.9 ± 4.1 11.9 ± 3.4 −0.58 (−1.15, − 0.02) 0.04
GHQ scores 42.7 ± 9.1 41.9 ± 8.9 40.4 ± 6.7 38.7 ± 6.8 −0.93 (−1.78, − 0.08) 0.03
DASS scores 82.5 ± 11.8 80.8 ± 12.4 81.5 ± 12.2 78.9 ± 12.3 −0.90 (−1.67, − 0.13) 0.02
PSQI 7.5 ± 2.8 6.5 ± 3.0 7.8 ± 2.7 5.8 ± 2.1 −0.73 (−2.11,-0.63) 0.28
Total testosterone (ng/mL) 1.1 ± 0.4 1.1 ± 0.3 1.0 ± 0.3 0.9 ± 0.2 −0.19 (− 0.28, − 0.10) < 0.001
SHBG (nmol/L) 40.2 ± 5.0 40.3 ± 5.3 38.4 ± 5.9 39.6 ± 5.7 0.92 (−0.45, 2.31) 0.18
mF-G scores 13.9 ± 3.0 13.6 ± 3.0 14.98 ± 3.2 13.5 ± 3.3 −0.95 (−1.39, − 0.51) < 0.001
hs-CRP (mg/L) 3.7 ± 1.0 3.8 ± 1.3 3.8 ± 1.1 3.2 ± 0.8 −0.67 (− 0.97, − 0.38) < 0.001
NO (μmol/L) 33.3 ± 4.9 32.3 ± 5.5 34.2 ± 1.0 33.6 ± 0.8 0.37 (−0.48, 1.23) 0.38
TAC (mmol/L) 835.1 ± 101.7 830.9 ± 93.8 850.5 ± 82.7 919.2 ± 85.4 82.81 (42.86, 122.75) < 0.001
GSH (μmol/L) 475.8 ± 71.7 491.7 ± 81.0 510.4 ± 99.3 556.5 ± 97.2 40.42 (4.69, 76.15) 0.02
MDA (μmol/L) 2.7 ± 0.5 2.6 ± 0.5 2.9 ± 0.3 2.5 ± 0.2 −0.25 (−0.40, −0.10) 0.001
  1. Data are mean ± SDs
  2. 1“Outcome measures” refers to the change in values of measures of interest between baseline and week 12. β [difference in the mean outcomes measures between treatment groups (vitamin D plus probiotic group = 1 and placebo group = 0)]
  3. 2Obtained from multiple regression model (adjusted for baseline values of each biochemical variables, age and baseline BMI)
  4. BDI, beck depression inventory; DASS, depression anxiety and stress scale; GHQ, general health questionnaire; GSH, total glutathione; hs-CRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; mF-G, modified Ferriman Gallwey; MDA, malondialdehyde; NO, nitric oxide; PSQI, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; SHBG, sex hormone-binding globulin; TAC, total antioxidant capacity