Huang CC, Tien YJ, Chen MJ, Chen CH, Ho HN, Yang YS. Symptom patterns and phenotypic subgrouping of women with polycystic ovary syndrome: association between endocrine characteristics and metabolic aberrations. Hum Reprod. 2015;30:937–46.
Artimani T, Karimi J, Mehdizadeh M, Yavangi M, Khanlarzadeh E, Ghorbani M, et al. Evaluation of pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) and its association with inflammatory cytokines in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Gynecol Endocrinol. 2018;34:148–52.
Walters KA, Gilchrist RB, Ledger WL, Teede HJ, Handelsman DJ, Campbell RE. New perspectives on the pathogenesis of PCOS: neuroendocrine origins. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2018;29:841–52.
Gonzalez F, Rote NS, Minium J, Kirwan JP. Reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative stress in the development of insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:336–40.
Kelly CC, Lyall H, Petrie JR, Gould GW, Connell JM, Sattar N. Low grade chronic inflammation in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:2453–5.
Cooney LG, Lee I, Sammel MD, Dokras A. High prevalence of moderate and severe depressive and anxiety symptoms in polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod. 2017;32:1075–91.
van Zuuren EJ, Fedorowicz Z. Interventions for hirsutism excluding laser and photoepilation therapy alone: abridged Cochrane systematic review including GRADE assessments. Br J Dermatol. 2016;175:45–61.
Jones ML, Martoni CJ, Prakash S. Oral supplementation with probiotic L. reuteri NCIMB 30242 increases mean circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D: a post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:2944–51.
Shang M, Sun J. Vitamin D/VDR, probiotics, and gastrointestinal diseases. Curr Med Chem. 2017;24:876–87.
Thomson RL, Spedding S, Brinkworth GD, Noakes M, Buckley JD. Seasonal effects on vitamin D status influence outcomes of lifestyle intervention in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2013;99:1779–85.
He C, Lin Z, Robb SW, Ezeamama AE. Serum vitamin D levels and polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrients. 2015;7:4555–77.
Hahn S, Haselhorst U, Tan S, Quadbeck B, Schmidt M, Roesler S, et al. Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with insulin resistance and obesity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2006;114:577–83.
Lagana AS, Vitale SG, Ban Frangez H, Vrtacnik-Bokal E, D'Anna R. Vitamin D in human reproduction: the more, the better? An evidence-based critical appraisal. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017;21:4243–51.
Monastra G, De Grazia S, De Luca L, Vittorio S, Unfer V, Vitamin D. A steroid hormone with progesterone-like activity. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2018;22:2502–12.
Akbari M, Ostadmohammadi V, Lankarani KB, Tabrizi R, Kolahdooz F, Heydari ST, et al. The effects of vitamin D supplementation on biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress among women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Horm Metab Res. 2018;50:271–9.
Xue Y, Xu P, Xue K, Duan X, Cao J, Luan T, et al. Effect of vitamin D on biochemical parameters in polycystic ovary syndrome women: a meta-analysis. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2017;295:487–96.
Maktabi M, Chamani M, Asemi Z. The effects of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic status of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Horm Metab Res. 2017;49:493–8.
Lindheim L, Bashir M, Munzker J, Trummer C, Zachhuber V, Leber B, et al. Alterations in gut microbiome composition and barrier function are associated with reproductive and metabolic defects in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a pilot study. PLoS One. 2017;12:e0168390. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168390.
Raygan F, Ostadmohammadi V, Asemi Z. The effects of probiotic and selenium co-supplementation on mental health parameters and metabolic profiles in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary heart disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Nutr. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2018.07.017.
Karamali M, Eghbalpour S, Rajabi S, Jamilian M, Bahmani F, Tajabadi-Ebrahimi M, et al. Effects of probiotic supplementation on hormonal profiles, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Iran Med. 2018;21:1–7.
Rotterdam ESHRE. ASRM-sponsored PCOS consensus workshop group. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2004;81:19–25.
Hatch R, Rosenfield RL, Kim MH, Tredway D. Hirsutism: implications, etiology, and management. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1981;140:815–30.
Ramezani Tehrani F, Minooee S, Azizi F. Validation of a simplified method to assess hirsutism in the Iranian population. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2014;174:91–5.
Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mock J, Erbaugh J. An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1961;4:561–71.
Goldberg DP, Hillier VF. A scaled version of the general health questionnaire. Psychol Med. 1979;9:139–45.
Crawford JR, Henry JD. The positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS): construct validity, measurement properties and normative data in a large non-clinical sample. Br J Clin Psychol. 2004;43:245–65.
Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF 3rd, Monk TH, Berman SR, Kupfer DJ. The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Res. 1989;28:193–213.
Tatsch E, Bochi GV, Pereira Rda S, Kober H, Agertt VA, de Campos MM, et al. A simple and inexpensive automated technique for measurement of serum nitrite/nitrate. Clin Biochem. 2011;44:348–50.
Benzie IF, Strain JJ. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of "antioxidant power": the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem. 1996;239:70–6.
Beutler E, Gelbart T. Plasma glutathione in health and in patients with malignant disease. J Lab Clin Med. 1985;105:581–4.
Janero DR. Malondialdehyde and thiobarbituric acid-reactivity as diagnostic indices of lipid peroxidation and peroxidative tissue injury. Free Radic Biol Med. 1990;9:515–40.
Jamilian M, Foroozanfard F, Rahmani E, Talebi M, Bahmani F, Asemi Z. Effect of two different doses of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic profiles of insulin-resistant patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Nutrients. 2017;9. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121280.
Mansournia MA, Altman DG. Invited commentary: methodological issues in the design and analysis of randomised trials. Br J Sports Med. 2018;52:553–5.
Schmidt C. Mental health: thinking from the gut. Nature. 2015;518:S12–5.
Barrett E, Ross RP, O'Toole PW, Fitzgerald GF, Stanton C. Gamma-aminobutyric acid production by culturable bacteria from the human intestine. J Appl Microbiol. 2012;113:411–7.
Yano JM, Yu K, Donaldson GP, Shastri GG, Ann P, Ma L, et al. Indigenous bacteria from the gut microbiota regulate host serotonin biosynthesis. Cell. 2015;161:264–76.
Ng QX, Peters C, Ho CYX, Lim DY, Yeo WS. A meta-analysis of the use of probiotics to alleviate depressive symptoms. J Affect Disord. 2018;228:13–9.
Ju SY, Lee YJ, Jeong SN. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and the risk of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17:447–55.
Fernandes de Abreu DA, Eyles D, Feron F, Vitamin D. A neuro-immunomodulator: implications for neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2009;34(Suppl 1):S265–77.
Bertone-Johnson ER. Vitamin D and the occurrence of depression: causal association or circumstantial evidence? Nutr Rev. 2009;67:481–92.
Humble MB. Vitamin D, light and mental health. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2010;101:142–9.
Gowda U, Mutowo MP, Smith BJ, Wluka AE, Renzaho AM. Vitamin D supplementation to reduce depression in adults: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutrition. 2015;31:421–9.
Vitale SG, Caruso S, Rapisarda AMC, Cianci S, Cianci A. Isoflavones, calcium, vitamin D and inulin improve quality of life, sexual function, body composition and metabolic parameters in menopausal women: result from a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Prz Menopauzalny. 2018;17:32–8.
Raygan F, Ostadmohammadi V, Bahmani F, Asemi Z. The effects of vitamin D and probiotic co-supplementation on mental health parameters and metabolic status in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary heart disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2018;84:50–5.
Reyes-Munoz E, Sathyapalan T, Rossetti P, Shah M, Long M, Buscema M, et al. Polycystic ovary syndrome: implication for drug metabolism on assisted reproductive techniques-a literature review. Adv Ther. 2018;35:1805–15.
Muscogiuri G, Altieri B, de Angelis C, Palomba S, Pivonello R, Colao A, et al. Shedding new light on female fertility: the role of vitamin D. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2017;18:273–83.
Vitale SG, Rossetti P, Corrado F, Rapisarda AM, La Vignera S, Condorelli RA, et al. How to achieve high-quality oocytes? The key role of myo-inositol and melatonin. Int J Endocrinol. 2016;2016:4987436.
Raja-Khan N, Shah J, Stetter CM, Lott ME, Kunselman AR, Dodson WC, et al. High-dose vitamin D supplementation and measures of insulin sensitivity in polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, controlled pilot trial. Fertil Steril. 2014;101:1740–6.
Liao D, Zhong C, Li C, Mo L, Liu Y. Meta-analysis of the effects of probiotic supplementation on glycaemia, lipidic profiles, weight loss and C-reactive protein in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Minerva Med. 2018.
Dumitrescu R, Mehedintu C, Briceag I, Purcarea VL, Hudita D. The polycystic ovary syndrome: an update on metabolic and hormonal mechanisms. J Med Life. 2015;8:142–5.
Dokras A, Sarwer DB, Allison KC, Milman L, Kris-Etherton PM, Kunselman AR, et al. Weight loss and lowering androgens predict improvements in health-related quality of life in women with PCOS. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016;101:2966–74.
Boztosun A, Acmaz G, Ozturk A, Muderris II. Clinical efficacy of low dose flutamide plus Diane-35 in the treatment of idiopathic hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome. Ginekol Pol. 2013;84:258–62.
Crommen S, Simon MC. Microbial regulation of glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. Genes. 2017;9.
Saydam BO, Yildiz BO. Gut-brain axis and metabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome. Curr Pharm Des. 2016;22:5572–87.
Pal L, Berry A, Coraluzzi L, Kustan E, Danton C, Shaw J, et al. Therapeutic implications of vitamin D and calcium in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2012;28:965–8.
Jamilian M, Amirani E, Asemi Z. The effects of vitamin D and probiotic co-supplementation on glucose homeostasis, inflammation, oxidative stress and pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Nutr. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2018.10.028.
Razzaghi R, Pourbagheri H, Momen-Heravi M, Bahmani F, Shadi J, Soleimani Z, et al. The effects of vitamin D supplementation on wound healing and metabolic status in patients with diabetic foot ulcer: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Diabetes Complicat. 2017;31:766–72.
Mansournia MA, Ostadmohammadi V, Doosti-Irani A, Ghayour-Mobarhan M, Ferns G, Akbari H, et al. The effects of vitamin D supplementation on biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in diabetic patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Horm Metab Res. 2018;50:429–40.
Chen N, Wan Z, Han SF, Li BY, Zhang ZL, Qin LQ. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on the level of circulating high-sensitivity C-reactive protein: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutrients. 2014;6:2206–16.
Kouchaki E, Tamtaji OR, Salami M, Bahmani F, Daneshvar Kakhaki R, Akbari E, et al. Clinical and metabolic response to probiotic supplementation in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Nutr. 2017;36:1245–9.
Kasinska MA, Drzewoski J. Effectiveness of probiotics in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2015;125:803–13.
Jamka M, Wozniewicz M, Walkowiak J, Bogdanski P, Jeszka J, Stelmach-Mardas M. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on selected inflammatory biomarkers in obese and overweight subjects: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Eur J Nutr. 2016;55:2163–76.
Pawelczak M, Rosenthal J, Milla S, Liu YH, Shah B. Evaluation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha in adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2014;27:356–9.
Boots CE, Jungheim ES. Inflammation and human ovarian follicular dynamics. Semin Reprod Med. 2015;33:270–5.
Sadrzadeh-Yeganeh H, Elmadfa I, Djazayery A, Jalali M, Heshmat R, Chamary M. The effects of probiotic and conventional yoghurt on lipid profile in women. Br J Nutr. 2010;103:1778–83.
Al-Rasheed NM, Al-Rasheed NM, Bassiouni YA, Hasan IH, Al-Amin MA, Al-Ajmi HN, et al. Vitamin D attenuates pro-inflammatory TNF-alpha cytokine expression by inhibiting NF-small ka, CyrillicB/p65 signaling in hypertrophied rat hearts. J Physiol Biochem. 2015;71:289–99.